From Gerald R. Lucas

The Structure of the Iliad

The Iliad belongs to the genre of primary epics, which emerged from the rich tradition of oral storytelling. Passed down through generations, these epics were composed and recited by bards who memorized and performed them in oral form. As a result, the Iliad carries the hallmarks of its oral tradition, with features such as formulaic language, stock phrases, and recurring themes. Its structure reflects the rhythmic and mnemonic needs of oral performance, captivating audiences through the power of spoken word.

The Iliad consists of twenty-four books, or “rhapsodies,” divided into three main sections: the Proem, the Main Narrative, and the Epilogue. Each section contributes to the overall structure and thematic development of the epic.


The Proem, also known as the Invocation, serves as an opening to the epic and sets the stage for the narrative. It begins with an appeal to the Muse, the goddess of inspiration, to aid the poet in recounting the story of the Trojan War. The Proem establishes the epic’s grandeur, invokes divine assistance, and prepares the audience for the forthcoming tale of heroes and gods.

Main Narrative

The Main Narrative comprises the bulk of the Iliad, spanning Books 2 to 23. It focuses on the wrath of Achilles and the events of the Trojan War. Within this section, the narrative unfolds through a series of dramatic episodes, battles, and dialogues. These episodes often involve confrontations between heroes, encounters with gods, and moments of intense emotional and moral dilemmas. The Main Narrative explores themes of honor, pride, glory, fate, and the complexities of human nature.

Books 1–4: The Exposition

The epic opens with the conflict between Agamemnon and Achilles, resulting in Achilles withdrawing from battle and praying to his mother Thetis for divine intervention. Agamemnon's army suffers setbacks in the face of Trojan advancements, and in response, Zeus sends a false dream to Agamemnon, urging him to rally his troops for an attack. The Trojan prince Paris challenges the Greek champion Menelaus to a duel, but the truce is broken, leading to fierce battles where both sides showcase their heroic prowess. Ultimately, the gods intervene to protect their favored mortals, shaping the unfolding events of the Trojan War.

Books 5–7: Duels of Greek and Trojan Heroes

The focus shifts to the battlefield where the Greek and Trojan forces clash. Diomedes, infused with divine strength by Athena, emerges as a formidable warrior, causing havoc among the Trojans. He wounds gods and mortals alike, including the gods Ares and Aphrodite. The gods continue to intervene in the conflict, with Apollo assisting the Trojans and Athena aiding the Greeks. The battles intensify, showcasing the brutality and heroism of the warriors, while the gods manipulate the outcome of the war behind the scenes.

Books 8–15: The Rout of the Greeks

The war escalates with fierce battles, shifting fortunes, and acts of heroism. The gods continue to influence the conflict, with Zeus orchestrating the course of the war and the other gods taking sides. Notable events include the death of the Trojan hero Sarpedon, the duels between Paris and Menelaus, and Hector’s relentless assaults on the Greek forces. The epic also explores the emotional struggles of the warriors, their personal relationships, and the devastating toll that war takes on both sides.

Books 16–18: The Death of Patroclus

Patroclus, a dear friend and companion of Achilles, dons Achilles’ armor and enters the battle in an attempt to rally the Greeks and push back the Trojan forces. He achieves initial success but is eventually confronted by the Trojan prince Hector. In a fierce duel, Hector kills Patroclus, leading to immense grief and fury in Achilles, who vows revenge on the Trojans. The death of Patroclus marks a turning point in the war, fueling Achilles’ wrath and setting the stage for the epic’s final acts.

Books 19–23: The Rage of Achilles

Achilles returns to the battlefield fueled by his intense anger and grief over the death of Patroclus. He avenges his friend’s death by slaying numerous Trojan warriors, including Hector’s closest allies. The gods continue to intervene, with Apollo aiding Hector and Athena assisting Achilles. The epic culminates in the climactic duel between Achilles and Hector, where Achilles emerges victorious and drags Hector’s body behind his chariot. The events in these books showcase the extent of Achilles’ wrath, the consequences of his actions, and the tragic fate that befalls Hector and Troy.


The Epilogue, found in Book 24, concludes the epic by depicting the funeral rites of Hector and the resolution of the conflict between Achilles and Priam. It provides closure to the narrative, emphasizing the tragic consequences of war and offering glimpses of hope, reconciliation, and the importance of honoring the fallen.